پنجشنبه، بهمن ۱۸، ۱۳۸۶


The Czech lands were under Habsburg rule from 1526, later becoming part of the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary. The independent republic of Czechoslovakia was created in 1918, following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian empire after World War I. After the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, disillusion with the Western response and occupation by the Red Army, the Communist party gained the majority in 1946 elections. Czechoslovakia was a Communist state from 1948 until the 1989 Velvet Revolution. On 1 January 1993, the country peacefully split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia
The Czech Republic is a pluralist multi-party parliamentary representative democracy. President Václav Klaus is the current head of state. The Prime Minister is the head of government (currently Mirek Topolánek). The Parliament has two chambers — the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004. It is also a member of the OECD, the Visegrád group and the Council of Europe
Quick Facts and Figures
Official Name Czech Republic
Population 10,290,000 (78 out of 192) l
Capital City Prague (1.7 million) l
Languages Czech (official) l
Latitude/Longitude 49° 45'N, 15° 30'E
Official Currency Koruna (CZK) l
Religions Catholic, many others
Land Area 78,864 sq km (30,449 sq miles) (114 out of 192) l
Landforms In essence, the Czech Republic is a large plateau surrounded by mountains, with a large slice of central lowland. l
The Czech Republic has a temperate, continental climate with relatively hot summers and cold, cloudy winters, usually with snow. Most rains are during the summer. The temperature difference between summers and winters is relatively high due to its landlocked geographical position. l
Even within the Czech Republic, temperatures vary greatly depending on the altitude. In general, at higher altitudes the temperatures decrease and precipitation increases. Another important factor is the distribution of the mountains. The climate therefore is very varied. l
At the highest peak (Sněžka, 1602 m) the average temperature is only -0.4 °C, whereas in the lowlands of South Moravia, the average temperature is as high as 10 °C. This also applies for the country's capital Prague, but this is due to urban factors. l
The coldest month is usually January followed by February and December. During these months there is usually snow in the mountains and sometimes in the major cities and lowlands, but this snow tends to melt very quickly and so most of the winter is just wet. l
During March, April and May, the temperatures usually increase rapidly and especially during April the temperatures and weather tend to vary a lot during the day. Spring is also characterized by high water levels in the rivers due to melting snow and there are often floods. l
The warmest month of the year is July, followed by August and June. On average, the summer temperatures are about 20 °C higher than during winter. Especially in the last decade, temperatures above 30 °C are not unusual. Summer is also characterized by rains and storms. l
Autumn usually begins in September, which is still relatively warm, but much drier. During October, temperatures usually fall back under 15 or 10 °C and deciduous trees begin to shed their leaves. By the end of November, temperatures usually range around the freezing point.l