پنجشنبه، دی ۰۶، ۱۳۸۶


Cyprus is the third-largest island in the Mediterranean and one of the most popular tourist destinations in the Mediterranean, attracting over 2.4 million tourists per year.[1] A former British colony, it gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1960 and became a Commonwealth republic in 1961. The Republic of Cyprus is a developed country and has been a member of the European Union since 1 May 2004.
In 1974, following a period of violence between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots and an attempted Greek Cypriot coup d'état sponsored by the Greek military junta of 1967-1974, Turkey invaded and occupied one-third of the island. This led to the displacement of thousands of Cypriots and the establishment of a separate Turkish Cypriot political entity in the north. This event and its resulting political situation is a matter of ongoing dispute.
The Republic of Cyprus, the internationally recognized state, has de jure sovereignty over 97% of the island of Cyprus and all surrounding waters, and the United Kingdom controls the remaining three percent. Cyprus is the mythical birthplace of the Greek goddess Aphrodite, of beauty and love, also known as Kypris or the Cyprian. According to Hesiod's Theogony, the goddess emerged fully grown from the sea where the severed genitals of the god Uranus were cast by his son Kronos, causing the sea to foam (Greek: Aphros). Her birth was famously depicted by the artist Botticelli in The Birth of Venus. The legendary site of Aphrodite's birth is at Petra Tou Romiou ("Aphrodite's Rock"), a large sea stack close to the coastal cliffs near Paphos. Throughout ancient history Cyprus was a flourishing centre for the cultic worship of Aphrodite.
The climate is temperate and Mediterranean with dry summers and variably rainy winters. Summer temperatures range from warm at higher elevations in the Tröodos mountains to hot in the lowlands. Winter temperatures are mild at lower elevations, where snow rarely occurs, but are significantly colder in the mountains, where there is sufficient snow for a seasonal ski facility. Dust storms are frequent throughout the year.
Quick Facts and Figures
Official Name Republic of Cyprus
Population 793,100, and that number does not include the estimated 115,000 Turks in the north. (154 out of 192)
Capital City Nicosia (pop. 207,000)
Languages Greek (official), English, Turkish
Latitude/Longitude 35° 00'N, 33° 00'E
Currency Greek Area: Cypriot Pound, Turkish Area: Turkish Lira
Religions Greek Orthodox, Muslim
Land Area 9,251sq km (3,372 sq miles) (160 out of 192)
Landforms A narrow band of mountains (the Kyrenia) slices across the north, while in the south, the Troodos Mountains dominate. Mt. Olympus is the highest point, at 6,403 ft., (1,951m). A somewhat fertile plain crosses the center of the island, with Nicosia at the southern end. The only rivers of size include the Pedias and Kariyoti.
Climate Cyprus is the hottest, driest island in the Mediterranean. It typically enjoys 340 days of sunshine a year. The rainy season is from November to March, with most of the rain falling between December and February. The spring season is mild. Early May can be windy, and by the middle of May the temperature begins to rise, and during July and August, it can reach well above 30 degrees centigrade. Autumn extends well into November.

جمعه، آذر ۳۰، ۱۳۸۶


Cuba is the most populous nation in the Caribbean. Its people, culture and customs draw from several sources including the aboriginal Taíno and Ciboney peoples, the period of Spanish colonialism, the introduction of African slaves, and its proximity to the United States. The island has a tropical climate that is moderated by the surrounding waters; however, the warm temperatures of the Caribbean Sea and the fact that the island of Cuba sits across the access to the Gulf of Mexico make Cuba prone to frequent hurricanes. Cuba's main island, at 766 miles long (1,232.5 km), is the world's 17th largest.

Quick Facts and Figures
Official Name Republic of Cuba
Population 11,822,800 (69 out of 192)
Capital City Havana (2.3 million)
Languages Spanish
Official Currency Cuban Peso
Religions Catholic, others
Land Area 110,860 sq km (103 out of 192)
Latitude/Longitude 21º 30N, 80º 00W

Cuba is an archipelago of islands located in the Caribbean Sea, with the geographic coordinates 21°3N, 80°00W. Cuba is the principal island, which is surrounded by four main groups of islands. These are the Colorados, the Sabana-Camagüey, the Jardines de la Reina and the Canarreos. The main island of Cuba constitutes most of the nation's land area or 105,006 km² (40,543 sq mi) and is the seventeenth-largest island in the world by land area. The second largest island in Cuba is the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth) in the southwest, with an area of 3,056 km² (1,180 sq mi). Cuba has a total land area of 110,860 km² (42,803 sq mi).
The main island consists mostly of flat to rolling plains. At the southeastern end is the Sierra Maestra, a range of steep mountains whose highest point is the Pico Real del Turquino at 1,975 meters (6,480 ft). The local climate is tropical, though moderated by trade winds. In general (with local variations), there is a drier season from November to April, and a rainier season from May to October. The average temperature is 21 °C in January and 27 °C in July. Cuba lies in the path of hurricanes, and these destructive storms are most common in September and October. Havana is the largest city and capital; other major cities include Santiago de Cuba and Camagüey. Better known smaller towns include Baracoa which was the first Spanish settlement on Cuba, Trinidad, a UNESCO world heritage site, and Bayamo.

پنجشنبه، آذر ۲۲، ۱۳۸۶


Country Details
Croatia is a country at the crossroads of the Mediterranean, Central Europe, and the Balkans. Its capital is Zagreb. Croatia borders with Slovenia and Hungary to the north, Serbia to the northeast, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the east, Montenegro to the far southeast, and the Adriatic Sea to the south. Croatia is a candidate for membership of the European Union and is expecting NATO membership invitation in April 2008. On October 17, 2007 Croatia became a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council for the 2008-2009 term.The Croats settled in the Balkans in the early 7th century and formed two principalities: Dalmatia and Pannonia. The establishment of the Trpimirović dynasty ca 850 brought strengthening to the Dalmatian Croat Duchy, which together with the Pannonian principality became a Kingdom in 925 under King Tomislav.
In 1102, Croatia entered into a personal union with the Hungarian Kingdom. After the 1526 Battle of Mohács the "reliquiae reliquiarum" (remnants of the remnants) of Croatia became a part of the Habsburg Monarchy in 1527.
It was part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, from 1918-1929, and Kingdom of Yugoslavia, from 1929-1941.
In 1941-1945 an Axis known as the Independent State of Croatia was set up, and after the victory of the Allies, Croatia became a republic within Yugoslavia.
In 1991 Croatia declared independence and a bitter and costly war was fought by the Croatian government against the Serb-led Yugoslav People's Army, Serbian paramilitary forces and rebel Serbs. Later the war mutated into a conflict between independent Croatia and the rebel Serbs, with the support of Serbia proper. The war came to an end with signing of the Dayton Agreement in 1995.
Croatia is located in Southern Europe. Its shape resembles that of a crescent or a horseshoe, which flanks its neighbours Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro. To the north lie Slovenia and Hungary; Italy lies across the Adriatic Sea. Its mainland territory is split in two non-contiguous parts by the short coastline of Bosnia and Herzegovina around Neum.
The country is famous for its many national parks. Croatia has a mixture of climates. In the north and east it is continental, Mediterranean along the coast and a semi-highland and highland climate in the south-central region. Offshore Croatia consists of over one thousand islands varying in size.

Quick Facts and Figures
Official Name Republic of Croatia
Population 4,397,000 (115 out of 192)
Capital City Zagreb (779,145)
Latitude/Longitude 45° 10'N, 15° 30'E
Languages Croatian
Official Currency Kuna
Religions Catholic, Orthodox, others
Land Area 56,538 sq km (123 out of 192)
Landforms The land is fertile and mostly flat in the north and northeast, and the far northwest.
The Dinaric Alps and a few smaller mountain ranges (Velebit and Velika Kapela) slice through Croatia. The highest point is 1,831m.
The land is hilly, rocky and steep along the Dalmatian coastline, and on most of its offshore islands
Major rivers include the Sava, Drava and Danube.
Climate Very pleasant Mediterranean conditions along the coastal areas, with mild winters and dry summers. Colder winters and somewhat hotter summers inland.