دوشنبه، مرداد ۲۲، ۱۳۸۶


A Brief Description
Ferdinand Magellan was the first European explorer to visit Chile, setting foot here on October 21, 1520.
In the late 15th century, the Incas extended their empire south, attempting to conquer Chile; they were successful in the north, but their influence (central and south) was limited as they faced fierce resistance from the indigenous Araucanian peoples.
In 1540, the Spanish explorer, Pedro de Valdivia arrived, and later founded the capital city of Santiago in 1541. He managed to control the local Indians, forcing them into hard labor, but in the south, the Araucanians would not budge.
Numerous Spanish settlements were built in central Chile, and their population base eventually exceeded one million. Those initial settlers suffered repeated attacks (often brutal) by Araucanians, and that remained a serious (hard to control) problem into the 19th century.
The colonies secretly detested Spain's military rule, but remained loyal to the Spanish crown for nearly three centuries. When the King of Spain was overthrown at the beginning of the 19th century, Chileans began to consider independence, and self-government.
And speaking of freedom, Jose de San Martin, and Bernardo O'Higgins, and their up-start armies drove out the Spanish and achieved their independence from Spain in 1818. Bernardo O'Higgins would later become Chile's first president.
Chile defeated Bolivia and Peru in a regional war (1879-1883) for the control of the Atacama Desert areas. During that war Chile gained more land to the north and Bolivia lost its outlet to the open sea; proving disastrous (even today) for its economy.
Beginning in 1891, and over the next 80 years, Chile was governed by self-serving parliamentary regimes, military rule, left-wing, right-wing parties (including Communists) and a long line of democratically elected presidents.
All remnants of democracy were tossed aside when the repressive military dictatorship of General Augusto Pinochet began in 1973; finally ending in 1989, when democratic elections were held again
Today, this underdeveloped country with an overdeveloped landscape is primed for the 21st century, as it controls a great portion of the planet's most spectacular scenery, as well as untold natural resources and riches.
Facts and Figures
Name Chile
(long form) Republic of Chile
Population 15,980,912 (59 out of 192)
Capital City Santiago (6.3 million in metro area)
Currency Chilean Peso (CLP)
Languages Spanish
National Day September 18
Religions Catholic (89%), Protestant (11%)
Geographic Coordinates
Latitude/Longitude (Capital City) 33° 27' S, 70° 40' W
Relative Location Chile is positioned in both the western and southern hemispheres. It's located on the western and southwestern coast of South America, and bordered by Argentina, Bolivia and Peru, and by the Pacific Ocean. Land Statistics
Coastline 6,435 km
Land Areas
(land) 748,800 sq km
(water) 8,150 sq km
(TOTAL) 756,950 sq km (39 out of 192)
Landforms With a toothy coastline of almost 6500 km, pencil-thin Chile is wedged between the Pacific Ocean and the rugged Andes, the world's longest mountain range. This land of incredible and unusual contrasts is also home to the numerous beaches, fjords, deep sea channels, glaciers and icebergs - and the Atacama Desert - a virtually rainless plateau made up of salt basins and lava flows.
Most of the country's interior is covered by mountains. The snowcapped Andes cover almost all of its eastern border; generally lower, non-Andean ranges dissect Chile (north to south) with the largest being the Cordillera de la Costa in the far south.
Located along the Ring of Fire, the Andes are geologically a young mountain range that includes over 600 volcanoes (within Chile alone), many of them active, and almost 10% have erupted (at least once) within the last century.
Throughout the country deep valleys and high plateaus front these mountain, most winding east to west; the central valley (or Pampas) runs to the Pacific Ocean shoreline.
The Lake Region of the south, is a group of mostly small, clear blue, cold-water lakes; in this area, waterfalls are common.
In the far south, an almost uncountable group of mountainous islands (forming varied archipelagos) front the coastline, forming a series of winding channels and fjords. Cape Horn, directly south of the island of Tierra del Fuego, is the southern most point in the world, next to Antarctica.
Mixed into the stunning landscape are the Northern and Southern Patagonian Ice Fields that form the largest continental mass of ice in the world, outside of Greenland and Antarctica.
Hundreds of glaciers branch off the ice fields, many extend all the way to sea level. Meltwater from the glaciers gather in lakes such as the General Carrera - the second largest lake in South America.
And as for rivers....dozens rise in the upper reaches of the Andes, and flow either to the Pacific Ocean, or east through neighboring Argentina.
Highest Pt. Nevado Ojos del Salado - 6,880 m, the second highest mountain on the South American continent.
Lowest Pt. Pacific Ocean - 0 m
Climate With incredible climate variations, north to south, Chile's weather is most difficult to summarize, so we will focus on Santiago, and then refer you to the individual conditions and forecasts shown below.
As for Santiago, the spring months (September - November) are mild and the perfect time to visit, while summers (December - February) are generally dry and hot, with cool evenings, and daily high temperatures often reaching 29.5°C.
The fall months (March - May) brings cooler temperatures with daily highs seldom exceeding 15.5°F, and the winter months (June - August) bring colder temps, heavy rains and mountain snowfall.

سه‌شنبه، مرداد ۱۶، ۱۳۸۶


The ancient land called Chad was inhabited over one million years ago, at a time when much of it was only water. In modern Chad, precious water is often difficult to find, while famine and war seem everywhere.
Over the centuries it served as the stomping-ground of sorts for a litany of cultures and kingdoms, and when the French arrived in 1891, they subsequently controlled it until Chad gained its independence in 1960.
Decades of ethnic warfare followed, as well as invasions from Libya, its most powerful neighbor. A certain level of peace was restored in 1990, but local power struggles continue, and the future of this unstable land is uncertain at best.
Much of the country is positioned within the hot and dry (and mostly unproductive) Sahara Desert, where Chad is covered by sand and barren scrub land. In the far south, and in the southwest, surrounding Lake Chad, conditions improve to support an abundance of wildlife and agricultural ventures.
Chad's economy has recently benefited from a series of major oilfield and pipeline projects, while cattle, cotton and gum arabic have long been the traditional economic mainstays.
Longterm weaknesses include its landlocked position, oppressive poverty, the shrinking of Lake Chad, and the ever increasing expansion of the Sahara Desert.
Facts and Figures
Official Name Republic of Chad
Population 9,944,201 (81 out of 192)
Capital City N'Djamena (680,000)
Largest Cities N'Djamena, Moundou, Sarh
Currency CFA Franc
Latitude/Longitude 12°11' N, 15°05' E
Languages French (official), Arabic (official), and numerous trobal dialects.
National Day 11 August; Independence Day
Religions Muslim, Christian, others
Land Area 1,259,200 sq km (20 out of 192)
Landforms In the northern reaches of the country, the Tibesti Mountains dominate the landscape of the surrounding Sahara Desert.
The Sahel, on the southern edges of the ever-expanding Sahara Desert, is a transition zone between the dry areas of the north and the tropical areas of the south. It receives very little rain, and most of the vegetation is a savanna growth of sparse grasses and shrubs.
The land rise into the Ennedi and Wadai plateaus along the eastern border with Sudan, where elevations reach near 610m.
In the south the forested land is nourished by the Chari and Logone Rivers. During the monsoon rains, Lake Chad often overflows, causing floods in the lowland depression of the south.
Highest Pt. Emi Koussi (3,415 m)
Lowest Pt. Djourab Depression (160 m)
Climate The Sahara Desert regions are hot and dry throughout the year, with little or no rainfall. Temperatures are much cooler along the south-central Sahel. Rainfall there averages near 380mm annually. Drought, however, is commonplace.
In the southern regions, rainfall is much heavier, averaging near 760mm annually. The mean temperature in N'Djamena is 28° C